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Lectia numarul 5 - Substantivul

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Lectia numarul 5 - Substantivul

Mesaj Scris de TheIonut la data de Vin Aug 21, 2009 1:33 am











A. Tipuri de substantive


1. Substantive comune
2. Substantive proprii


1. Substantivele comune desemneaza fiinte (oameni si animale) si obiecte / lucruri.


Exemple:
- fiinte: man, woman, grandmother, teacher, brother, pupil, doctor, nurse
- obiecte (lucruri): pencil, school, car, hotel, medicine, shop, power, health


2. Substantivele proprii desemneaza nume de familie si prenume, nume de munti, orase, tari, ape etc.


Exemple:
- nume de familie si prenume: Ewing, Brown, Sawyer, John, Mary, Helen
- nume de munti: Alps, Himalaya, Everest
- nume de orase: Bucharest, Paris, Venice
- nume de tari: France, Italy, Croatia
- nume de ape: Mississippi, Danube, Thames




B. Genul substantivelor


1. Genul masculin (care se inlocuiesc cu pronumele personal he)


Exemple: man, doctor, driver, father, boy






2. Genul feminin (care se inlocuiesc cu pronumele personal she)


Exemple: woman, mother, girl, actress, sister.


3. Genul neutru (nume de lucruri, obiecte si animale; se inlocuiesc cu pronumele personal it)


Exemple: cat, dog, pencil, butterfly, car, notebook.


C. Numarul substantivelor


Substantivele pot fi la singular sau la plural.


Formarea pluralului:
a) pluralul cu "-s"


Exemple:
a dog ---> two dogs
a school ---> two schools
a car ---> two cars
a book ---> two books


b) pluralul cu "-es" (pentru substantivele care au terminatia in -s, -x, -z, -ch, -sh)


Exemple:
a bus ---> two buses
a fax ---> two faxes
a church ---> two churches


Atentie:
a tomato ---> two tomatoes
a potato ---> two potatoes


dar
radio ---> radios
photo ---> photos


c) pluralul cu "-ies" (pentru substantivele care au terminatia in -y)


Exemple:
lady ---> ladies
baby ---> babies
fly ---> flies


dar:
day ---> days
boy ---> boys


Reguli:
- pentru substantivele care se termina in y precedat de o consoana, pluralul se va face in -ies

- pentru substantivele care se termina in y precedat de o vocala, pluralul se va face in -s


d) pluralul cu "-ves" (pentru substantivele care au terminatia in -f sau -fe)


Exemple:
leaf ---> leaves
calf ---> calves
shelf ---> shelves
wife ---> wives
wolf ---> wolves


Exceptii:
chief ---> chiefs
proof ---> proofs
belief ---> beliefs


e) pluralele neregulate


Exemple:
child ---> children
man ---> men
woman ---> women
foot ---> feet
goose ---> geese
mouse ---> mice
tooth ---> teeth


f) substantive invariabile care nu primesc "-s"


Exemple:
deer (cerb)
duck (rata)
sheep (oaie)
trout (pastrav)
fish (peste)
fruit (fructe)


g) substantivele cu sens colectiv care nu au forma de plural


Exemple:
advice (sfat)
baggage (bagaj)
luggage (bagaje)
information (informatii)
furniture (mobila)
people (oameni)
crowd (multime)
police (politie)


h) pluralul substantivelor proprii


Exemple:
the Browns
the Johnsons
the Thompsons


D. Substantive compuse


Exemple:
classroom
schoolboy
schoolgirl
blackboard
dining-room
breakfast



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Re: Lectia numarul 5 - Substantivul

Mesaj Scris de TheIonut la data de Vin Aug 21, 2009 1:34 am

Exercitii:





1. Alcatuiti pluralul urmatoarelor substantive:


table --->
clock --->
leaf --->
gentleman --->
baby --->
tooth --->
friend --->
city --->
life --->
chief --->

2. Inlocuiti substantivele urmatoare cu pronumele personal potrivit:


the girl ---
the dog ---
the actor ---
the schoolboy ---
the pencil ---
the grandmother ---

3. Alcatuiti cat mai multe substantive compuse cu ajutorul urmatoarelor cuvinte:

dining, bird, school, class, kinder, mate, room, boy, father, black,
book, girl, board, living, garden, note, exercise, parents, grand.


Raspunsuri exercitii

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